HHS Residual Standards of Conduct
These Standards were published in a booklet entitled "Standards of Conduct" on March 30, 1989 (45 CFR Part 73). Since then the Office for Government Ethics (OGE) published the ethics regulations, 5 C.F.R. Parts 2600 to 2641, applicable to all Executive Branch employees in 1992.
The regulations became effective on February 3, 1993. Subsequently, HHS published the Supplemental Standards Of Ethical Conduct For Employees Of The Department Of Health And Human Services (HHS), 5 C.F.R Part 5501 And Supplemental Financial Disclosure Requirements For Employees Of HHS, 5 C.F.R Part 5502 which supplement the OGE ethics rules and regulations. Therefore, only the following subparts and sections of the HHS Standards of Conduct remain in effect. [Please consult with the Office of General Counsel prior to taking any action based on any of these subpart/sections. Revised by OGC Ethics Division, 5/19/2015.]
(a) An employee's conduct on the job is, in all respects, of concern to the Federal government. Courtesy, consideration, and promptness in dealing with the public must be shown in carrying out official responsibilities, and actions which deny the dignity of individuals or conduct which is disrespectful to others must be avoided. Employees must recognize that inattention to matters of common courtesy can adversely affect the quality of service the Department is responsible for providing. Where appropriate, courtesy to the public should be included in the standards for employee performance.
(b) Of equal importance is the requirement that courtesy be shown in day-by-day interaction with co-workers. Employees shall be polite to and considerate of other employees, and shall respect their needs and concerns in the work environment.
(a) When a Department program is based on law, Executive Order or regulation, every employee has a positive obligation to make it function as efficiently and economically as possible and to support it as long as it is a part of recognized public policy. An employee may, therefore, properly make an address explaining and interpreting such a program, citing its achievements, defending it against uninformed or unjust criticism, or soliciting views for improving it.
(b) An employee shall not, either directly or indirectly, use appropriated funds to influence, or attempt to influence, a Member of Congress to favor or oppose legislation. However, when authorized by his or her supervisor, an employee is not prohibited from: (1) Testifying, on request, as a representative of the Department on pending legislation or proposals before Congressional Committees; or (2) Assisting Congressional Committees in drafting bills or reports on request, when it is clear that the employee is serving solely as a technical expert under the direction of committee leadership.
(c) All employees shall be familiar with regulations and published instructions that relate to their official duties and responsibilities and shall comply with those directives. This includes carrying out proper orders from officials authorized to give them.
(d) Employees are required to assist the Inspector General and other investigative officials in the performance of their duties or functions. This requirement includes the giving of statements or evidence to investigators of the Inspector General's office or other HHS investigators authorized to conduct investigations into potential violations.
(a) An employee shall not participate while on Government-owned or leased property or while on duty for the Government, in any gambling activity including the operation of a gambling device, in conducting a lottery or pool, in a game for money or property, or in selling or purchasing a numbers slip or ticket.
(b) An employee shall not while in or on Government-owned or leased property or while on duty for the Government solicit alms and contributions, engage in commercial soliciting and vending, display or distribute commercial advertisements, or collect private debts.
(c) The prohibitions in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section do not preclude: (1) Activities necessitated by an employee's law enforcement duties; (2) Participation in Federally sponsored fund-raising activities conducted pursuant to Executive Order 10927, or similar HHS approved activities; or (3) Buying a lottery ticket at an authorized State lottery outlet for a lottery authorized by State law and conducted by an agency of a State within that State.
(d) General Services Administration regulations on ''Conduct on Federal Property'' apply to all property under the control of the General Services Administration, and they are also applicable to all buildings and space under the control of this Department. These regulations prohibit, among other things, gambling, being intoxicated, and possession, distribution, or use of narcotic or dangerous drugs on the premises. The GSA regulations are found in Subpart 101-20.3 of the GSA Regulations, 41 CFR 101-20.3.
Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature which are unwelcome. Sexual harassment is unacceptable conduct and is expressly prohibited. In addition, supervisors and managers are prohibited from taking or promising personnel actions in exchange for sexual favors, or failing to take an action because an employee or applicant for employment, refuses to engage in sexual conduct. This same prohibition applies to relationships between Department personnel who take or recommend action on a grant or contract and the grantee or contractor. Those employees who wish to file a complaint of sexual harassment should contact the Office of Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) within their respective agencies for guidance. (Time frames for pursuing a charge alleging sexual harassment are the same as for any other complaint based on allegations of sex discrimination.)
Employees shall avoid any action whether or not
prohibited by this part, which might result in or create the appearance
(e) Making a Government decision outside official channels
(a) Whenever an employee has a question about the appropriate course of conduct to be followed in a matter that may involve an actual or apparent conflict of interest, he or she should immediately consult with his or her supervisor or a deputy ethics counselor, or both. If a supervisor who is consulted determines that the matter warrants further consideration, he or she may, in conjunction with the employee, submit the details of the matter, in writing, to the appropriate deputy ethics counselor. These details should include a description of:
(1) The activity, relationship, or interest giving rise to the question posed by the employee;
(2) The duties or official responsibilities of the employee(s) involved;
(3) The nature of the actual or apparent conflict of interest; and
(4) Any other information that may be helpful in reviewing the problem.
(b) Upon receiving the submission of an employee or a supervisor, the deputy ethics counselor will develop any additional information about the matter as necessary, and will confer with the Department Ethics Counselor as appropriate. The Department Ethics Counselor and the head of the principal operating component or his or her designee will be informed of any serious violation of the standards of this subpart or any other conflict of interest law. Questions of first impression or other unusual matters shall be brought to the attention of the Department Ethics Counselor and the head of the principal operating component or his or her designee.
(c) On the basis of all information gathered including, where appropriate, the advice of the Department Ethics Counselor, the deputy ethics counselor will:
(1) Decide that there is no violation or potential violation of the standards of this subpart or any other law and so notify the employee and his or her supervisor in writing; or
(2) Decide that a violation or potential violation of the standards of this subpart or other law has occurred or may occur, and that the employee involved shall take one or more of the steps set forth in § 731.735-904 to resolve the problem and notify the employee and his or her supervisor in writing; or
(3) Decide that, although no violation of this subpart or other law has occurred, the nature of the matter is such that the employee should periodically report any additional information that would require reconsideration of the initial submission.
(a) All employees in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government, including non-career employees, are subject to basic political activity restrictions in subchapter III of chapter 73 of title 5, United States Code (the former Hatch Act) and Civil Service Rule IV. Employees are individually responsible for refraining from prohibited political activity. Ignorance of a prohibition does not excuse a violation. This subpart summarizes provisions of law and regulation concerning political activity of employees. The Federal Personnel Manual and other publications of the Office of Personnel Management contain more detailed information on this subject. These may be reviewed in Department personnel offices, or will be made available by the Ethics Counselor, or the deputy counselor for the employee's organizational component.
(b) The Secretary and Under Secretary are exempt from the prohibitions concerning active participation in political management and political campaigns. Also exempt are other officials of the Department, except the Inspector General and Deputy Inspector General, who are appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and who determine policies to be pursued by the United States in the nationwide administration of Federal laws.
(c) Intermittent employees are subject to the restrictions when in active duty status only and for the entire 24 hours of any day of actual employment.
(d) Employees on leave, on leave without pay, or on furlough even though an employee's resignation has been accepted, are subject to the restrictions. Separated employees who have received a lump-sum payment for annual leave are not subject to the restriction during the period covered by the lump-sum payment or thereafter, provided they do not return to Federal employment during that period. Employees are not permitted to take a leave of absence to work with a political candidate, committee, or organization or to become a candidate for office with the understanding that they will resign their position if nominated or elected.
(e) Employees are accountable for political activity by another person acting as their agent or under the employee's direction or control, if they are thus accomplishing indirectly what they may not lawfully do directly and openly.
(f) Though officers in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps are not subject to the restrictions in Subchapter III of Chapter 73 of Title 5, United States Code, the provisions of this subpart apply to them.
§73.735-602 Permissible activities.
(a) Section 7324 of Title 5, United States Code, provides that employees have the right to vote as they please and to express their opinions on political subjects and candidates. Generally, however, employees are prohibited from taking an active part in political management or political campaigns or using official authority or influence to interfere with an election or affect its results. There are some exemptions from the restrictions of the statute:
(1) Employees may engage in political activity in connection with any question not specifically identified with a national or State political party. They also may engage in political activity in connection with an election, if none of the candidates represents a party any of whose candidates for presidential elector received votes at the last preceding election at which presidential electors were selected.
(2) An exception relates to political campaigns within, or in communities adjacent to, the District of Columbia, or in communities the majority of whose voters are employees of the Federal government. Communities to which the exception applies are specifically designated by the Office of Personnel Management. Information regarding the localities and the conditions under which the exceptions are granted may be obtained from personnel offices or the Department Counselor or deputy counselors.
(b) A covered employee is permitted to:
(1) Register and vote in any election;
(2) Express his or her opinion as an individual citizen privately and publicly on political subjects and candidates;
(3) Display a political picture, sticker, badge or button;
(4) Participate in the nonpartisan activities of a civic, community, social, labor, or professional organization, or of a similar organization;
(5) Be a member of a political party or other political organization and participate in its activities to the extent consistent with law;
(6) Attend a political convention, rally, fund raising function; or other political gathering;
(7) Sign a political petition as an individual citizen;
(8) Make a financial contribution to a political party organization;
(9) Take an active part, as an independent candidate, or support of an independent candidate, in a partisan election in localities identified as permissible for such activities by the Office of Personnel Management;
(10) Take an active part, as a candidate or in support of a candidate, in a nonpartisan election;
(11) Be politically active in connection with a question which is not specifically identified with a political party, such as a constitutional amendment, referendum, approval of a municipal ordinance or any other question or issue of a similar character;
(12) Serve as an election judge or clerk, or in a similar position to perform nonpartisan duties as prescribed by State or local law; and
(13) Otherwise participate fully in public affairs, except as prohibited by law, in a manner which does not materially compromise his or her efficiency or integrity as an employee or the neutrality, efficiency, or integrity of his or her agency.
(c) The head of a principal operating component may prohibit or limit the participation of an employee or class of employees of his or her component in an activity permitted by paragraph (b) of this section, if participation in the activity would interfere with the efficient performance of official duties, or create a conflict or apparent conflict of interest.
§73.735-603 Prohibited activities.
(a) The following are prohibited activities:
(1) Serving as an officer of a political party, a member of a national, State or local committee of a political party, an officer or member of a committee of a partisan political club, or being a candidate for any of these positions;
(2) Organizing or reorganizing a political party organization or political club;
(3) Directly or indirectly soliciting, receiving, collecting, handling, disbursing, or accounting for assessments, contributions, or other funds for a partisan political purpose or in connection with a partisan election;
(4) Organizing, selling tickets to, seeking support for, or actively participating in a fund-raising activity of, a political party or political club;
(5) Taking an active part in managing the political party campaign of a candidate for public office or political office;
(6) Being a candidate for, or campaigning for, an elective public office, except as permitted in §73.735-602(b)(9);
(7) Taking an active part in an organized solicitation of votes in support of or in opposition to a candidate for public office or political party office;
(8) Acting as recorder, watcher, challenger, or similar officer at the polls on behalf of a political party or candidate in a partisan election;
(9) Driving voters to the polls on behalf of a political paty or a candidate in a partisan election;
(10) Endorsing or opposing a candidate in a partisan election in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material;
(11) Serving as a delegate, alternate, or proxy to a political party convention;
(12) Addressing a State or national convention or caucus, or a rally or similar gathering of a political party, in support of or in opposition to a candidate for public or political party office, or on a partisan political question; and
(13) Initiating or circulating a nominating petition for a candidate in a partisan election.
(b) In addition, certain political activities are prohibited by Federal criminal law:
(1) Officers and employees may not directly or indirectly solicit or receive, or be in any way involved in soliciting or receiving, any assessment, subscription or contribution for any political purpose whatever from another officer or employee. This prohibition extends to one who acts as a mere agent or messenger for the purpose of turning the contribution over to a political organization. 18 U.S.C. 602.
(2) All persons, whether employees or not, are prohibited from soliciting in any manner, or receiving a contribution of, money or a thing of value, in any room or building occupied in the discharge of official duties by any officer or employee of the United States. 18 U.S.C. 603. This prohibition extends to the sending of a letter soliciting political contributions for delivery in a Government building.
(3) No officer or employee may directly or indirectly give to any other officer, employee or person in the service of the United States, any money or other thing of value to be applied to the promotion of any political objective. 18 U.S.C. 607.
(4) Discrimination for giving or withholding any contribution for any political purpose and discrimination based on political influence or recommendations is prohibited.
(c) Various other laws prohibit certain activities in connection with political campaigns and elections. They include:
(1) Intimidating, threatening, or coercing voters in Federal elections (18 U.S.C. 594).
(2) Using official authority in interfering with a Federal election by a person employed in any administrative position by the United States or by any department, independent establishment, or agency of the United States or by any State, agency, or political subdivision thereof in connection with any activity financed in whole or in part by Federal funds (18 U.S.C. 595).
(3) Promising Federal employment, compensation, or any benefit from Federal funds, in return for political activity or support (18 U.S.C. 600).
(4) Depriving anyone of employment, compensation, or any benefit derived from Federal relief or work relief funds on account of race, creed, color, or political activity (18 U.S.C. 601).
(5) Soliciting, assessing, or receiving subscriptions or contributions for political purpose from anyone on Federal relief or work relief (18 U.S.C. 604).
§ 73.735-1201 General provisions.
(a) Violations of the regulations con-tained in the Part may be cause for disciplinary action which could be in addition to any penalty prescribed by law. (For a list of some offenses for which disciplinary action may be taken and ''The Code of Ethics for Government Service,'' the violation of which may also result in disciplinary action, see Appendixes A and B of this Part).
(b) The type of disciplinary action to be taken must be determined in relation to the specific violation. Those responsible for recommending and for taking disciplinary action must apply judgment to each case, taking into account the general objectives of meeting any requirements of law, deterring similar offenses by the employee and other employees, and maintaining high standards of employee conduct and public confidence. Some types of disciplinary action which may be considered are:
(2) Written reprimand
(c) Suspension, demotion, and removal are adverse actions; and when such actions are taken, applicable laws, regulations, and policies must be followed. [46 FR 7369, Jan. 23, 1981, as amended at 53 FR 4409, Feb. 16, 1988]
§ 73.735-1301 Responsibility for reporting possible criminal violations. An employee who has information which he or she reasonably believes indicates a possible offense against the United States by an employee of the Department, or any other individual working on behalf of the Department, shall immediately report such information to his or her supervisor, any management official, or directly to the Office of the Inspector General. Offenses covered by the preceding sentence include, but are not limited to, bribery, fraud, perjury, conflict of interest, misuse of funds, equipment, or facilities, and other conduct by a government officer or employee, grantee, contractor or other person which is prohibited by title 18 of the United States Code. Employees and supervisors should refer to chapter 5-10 of the Department's General Administration Manual for procedures regarding the reporting and handling of such information.
Following is a list of some offenses for which disciplinary action may be taken under this Part. When a statute applies specifically to a particular offense, either wholly or in part, the statute is cited. Neither the list of offenses nor the statutory citations are all-inclusive. The ''Code of Ethics for Government Service'' is not cited because of its general applicability but is published in its entirety in Appendix B.
A. Concerning Efficiency of Operations in General.
- Engaging in wasteful actions or behavior in the performance of assigned duties; conducting non-Government business during official work hours; or participating in a strike (18 U.S.C. 1918), work stoppage, slowdown, sickout, or other similar action.
- Absence without leave, failure to adhere to the rules and regulations for requesting and obtaining leave, or improper use of sick leave.
- Deliberate insubordination or refusal to carry out lawful orders or assignments given.
- Disruptive behavior, such as:
- Inflicting or threatening or attempting to inflict bodily injury on another (except for necessary defense of self or others) while on the job or on Federal premises.
- Discourtesy, disreputable conduct, or use of insulting, abusive or obscene language to or about other individuals while on the job.
- Sexual harassment of employees or members of the public.
- Failure to observe precautions for safety, such as failure to use safety equipment when it is provided or ignoring signs, posted rules or regulations, or written or verbal safety instructions.
- Unauthorized use, possession, or distribution of alcoholic beverages (5 U.S.C. 7352) or controlled substances (e.g., hallucinogens, such as LSD; stimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamines; sedatives, such as barbiturates; narcotics and other drugs or substances, such as hashish and other cannabis substances).
- Unauthorized gambling; or canvassing, soliciting, or peddling on Government premises.
- Failure to carry or show proper identification or credentials as required by competent authority; misuse of identification cards or investigative or identification credentials or badges.
- Failure to disclose (i.e., report) information, when such disclosure is not specifically prohibited by law or Executive Order, that involves (a) violation of law, rule, or regulation, (b) mismanagement or gross waste of funds or abuse of authority, or (c) posing a substantial and specific danger to public health or safety; failure to cooperate in an official Department inquiry.
- Failure to pay just debts, including taxes to and loans from governmental sources.
- Deceit or interference in a Civil Service examination (18 U.S.C. 1917) or in connection with a Government personnel action.
- Fraud or false statements in a Government matter. (18 U.S.C. 1001 through 1003.)
- Supervisory failure to initiate disciplinary or corrective action when the facts are known and disciplinary or corrective action is warranted.
- Employment of a member of an organization that advocates the overthrow of our constitutional form of government. (5 U.S.C. 7311; 50 U.S.C. 784.)
B. Concerning Government Funds, Property, Documents, and Records.
- Actual or attempted embezzlement or theft of Government or personal money or property either directly or through use of Government documents, automated equipment, or other means; actual or attempted embezzlement or theft of the money or property of another person in the possession of an employee by reason of his or her employment. (18 U.S.C. 641 and 654.)
- Failure to account for public money. (18 U.S.C. 643.)
- Deliberate falsifying of official time and attendance records; improper use of official travel or forging, counterfeiting, or otherwise falsifying official Government travel records or documents. (18 U.S.C. 508.)
- False record entries or false reports of money or securities. (18 U.S.C. 2073.)
- Loss or misuse of or damage to Government property or endangering persons or Government property through carelessness or by willful malicious conduct.
- Mutilating, destroying, or concealing public records. (18 U.S.C. 2071.)
- Misuse of penalty (postal) privilege. (18 U.S.C. 1719.)
- Failure to safeguard administratively confidential, financial, and trade secrets information.
- Unauthorized use of documents presented or used to procure the payment of money from or by the Government. (18 U.S.C. 285.)
- Unauthorized use of a Government vehicle; serious or repeated violations of traffic regulations while driving a Government vehicle or a vehicle rented or leased for official Government purposes; reckless driving or improper operation of any Government owned, rented, or leased motor vehicle. (31 U.S.C. 1349[b].)
- Violations of the Privacy Act, including:
- Willful prohibited disclosure of individually identifiable information in violation of 5 U.S.C. 552a.
- Willfully maintaining a system of records without meeting the notice requirements of the Privacy Act as required by 5 U.S.C. 552a.
- Violation of regulations concerning the release of classified information, confidential, or security and investigative information. (18 U.S.C. 798 and 1905; 21 U.S.C. 331j; and 50 U.S.C. 783.)
C. Concerning Conflicts of Interest and Related Unethical Conduct:
- Violations of 18 U.S.C. Chapter 11: Bribery, Graft, and Conflicts of Interest, including:
- Having a direct or indirect financial interest (includes employee ownership of stocks, bonds, or partnership interests in an entity or employment of the employee, his or her spouse, or dependent child) that conflicts with one's Government duties because such entity is either regulated by, has or seeks to do business with the agency, or has any other particular matter with or pending before the agency that may give rise to either an actual conflict or the appearance thereof. (18 U.S.C. 208.)
- Bribery of a public official; soliciting or accepting directly or indirectly anything of monetary value, including gifts, gratuities, favors, entertainment, or loans either as compensation for governmental services or from individuals who are seeking contractual or other business or financial relations with the Department, are conducting operations or activities that are regulated by the Department, or have interests that may be substantially affected by the performance or nonperformance of the employee's official duties; receiving salary or any contribution to or supplementation of salary from a private source as compensation for services for the Government. (18 U.S.C. 201 and 209.)
- Acting as the agent of a foreign principal registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act. (18 U.S.C. 219.)
- Engaging, directly or indirectly, in a financial transaction as a result of or primarily relying on information that is obtained through one's official duties and would not be available were the employee not an employee of the Federal Government.
- Soliciting a contribution from another employee for a gift to an official superior, making a donation as a gift to an official superior, or accepting a gift from an employee receiving less pay than oneself. (5 U.S.C. 7351.)
- Engaging, without required permission, in outside activities that result in or create the appearance of a conflict of interest.
- Teaching, lecturing, or writing that depends in specific information obtained as a result of one's Government employment when that information is not otherwise available to the public.
- Failure to obtain required clearance of an official speech or article.
- Lobbying with appropriated funds. (18 U.S.C. 1913.)
- Representation before a Federal agency (other than in the proper discharge of one's official duties) as an agent or attorney in a claim against the United States (or receiving any gratuity or share in any such claim in consideration for assistance given) or as an agent or attorney for anyone before any department, agency, court, or otherwise in connection with any proceeding, application, request for a ruling, or claim on any other particular matter in which the United States is a party or has a direct and substantial interest. (18 U.S.C. 205.) (Note: This section notwithstanding, an employee may, if not in-consistent with the performance of his or her official duties, act without compensation as an agent or attorney for another person who is the subject of any disciplinary or other administrative proceeding or as an agent or attorney for one's parent, spouse, child, or any person or estate for whom or which he or she serves as personal fiduciary except in those matters in which the employee has participated personally and substantially.)
D. Concerning Prohibited Political and Election Activities.
- Activities prohibited by 5 U.S.C. Chapter 73, Subchapter III, including:
- Section 7323, ''Political contributions; prohibition.''
- Section 7324, ''Influencing elections; taking part in political campaigns; prohibitions; exceptions.''
- Activities prohibited by 18 U.S.C. Chapter29, including:
- Section 594, ''Intimidation of voters.''
- Section 597, ''Expenditures to influence voting.''
- Section 598, ''Coercion by means of relief appropriations.''
- Section 600, ''Promise of employment or other benefit for political activity.''
- Section 601, ''Deprivation of employment or other benefit for political contribution.''
- Section 602, ''Solicitation of political contributions.''
- Section 604, ''Solicitation from persons on relief.''
- Section 606, ''Intimidation to secure political contributions.''
E. Concerning Prohibited Personnel Practices.
- Commission of a prohibited personnel practice (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 2302[b] [1-11]); that is, any employee who has authority to take, direct others to take, recommend, or approve any personnel action, shall not, with respect to such authority, commit any of the following practices:
- Discriminate for or against any employee or applicant for employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, handicapping condition, marital status, or political affiliation.
- Solicit or consider any recommendation or statement, oral or written, with respect to any individual who requests or is under consideration for any personnel action unless such recommendation or statement is based on the personal knowledge or records of the person furnishing it and consists of (1) an evaluation of the work performance ability, aptitude, or general qualifications of such individual or (2) an evaluation of the character, loyalty, or suitability of such individual.
- Coerce the political activity of any person (including the providing of any political contribution or service) or take any action against any employee or applicant for employment as a reprisal for the refusal of any person to engage in such political activity.
- Deceive or willfully obstruct any person with respect to such person's right to compete for employment.
- Influence any person to withdraw from competition for any position for the purpose of improving or injuring the prospects of any other person for employment.
- Grant any preference or advantage not authorized by law, rule, or regulation to any employee or applicant for employment (including defining the scope or manner of competition or the requirements for any position) for the purpose of improving or injuring the prospects of any particular person for employment.
- Appoint, employ, promote, advance, or advocate for appointment, employment, pro-motion, or advancement, in or to a civilian position any individual who is a relative (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3110) when the civilian position is in the Department or under his or her jurisdiction or control.
- Take or fail to take a personnel action with respect to any employee or applicant for employment as a reprisal for the lawful disclosure of information.
- Take or fail to take any personnel action against an employee or applicant for employment as a reprisal for the exercise of any appeal right granted by any law, rule, or regulation (including HHS Instructions and issuances).
- Discriminate for or against any employee or applicant for employment on the basis of conduct that does not adversely affect the performance of the employee or applicant or the performance of others (except criminal conviction in determining suit-ability or fitness).
- Take or fail to take any personnel action when the taking of or failure to take such action violates any law, rule, or regulation implementing, or directly concerning the merit system principles (as set forth in 5 U.S.C. 2301).
[53 FR 4410, Feb. 16, 1988]